About Chess

Chess is a two-player game, where one player is assigned white pieces and the other black. Each player has 16 pieces to start the game: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. The object of the game is to capture the other player's king. This capture is never actually completed, but once a king is under attack and unable to avoid capture, it is said to be checkmated and the game is over.

Movement and Capturing

  1. The king may move one square in any direction.
  2. The queen may move an unlimited number of squares in any direction.
  3. The rooks may move an unlimited number of squares vertically or horizontally.
  4. The bishops may move an unlimited number of squares diagonally.
  5. The knight moves to any of the closest squares which are not on the same rank, file or diagonal. The knight is the only piece which can leap over other pieces.
  6. A pawn may only move forward one square at a time (except for its first move, when it may advance by one or two squares).

Special moves

1. En Passant

When a pawn advances two squares and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant, and move to the square the pawn passed over. However, this can only be done on the very next move, or the right to do so is lost.

2.  Pawn promotion
On reaching the last rank, a pawn must immediately be exchanged, as part of the same move, for [either] a queen, a rook, a bishop, or a knight, of the same colour as the pawn, at the player's choice and without taking into account the other pieces still remaining on the chessboard. The effect of the promoted piece is immediate and permanent!

3. Castling

Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (which is on the player’s first rank.) and then placing the rook to the last square the king has just crossed.